Solar panels are quite an amazing technology with the ability to turn sunlight into electricity. Solar cells are made of silicon, a semiconductor that is the second most abundant element on Earth. They are constructed with a positive layer and a negative layer, which together create an electric field, just like in a battery. When photons hit a solar cell, they knock electrons loose from their atoms. If conductors are attached to the positive and negative sides of a cell, it forms an electrical circuit. That how it lights your homes, etc.